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Excursions Along The Wall

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Hanyangdoseong, the Seoul City Wall[Historic Site No. 10]

The wall, which follows the ridges of Baegak (Bugaksan), Naksan (Naktasan), Namsan (Mongmyeoksan) and Inwangsan, the four main mountains surrounding the center of Seoul, has been constantly managed since its initial construction in 1396. The wall measures between 5 and 8m high and is 18.6km long and it bears witness to the role played by a city wall in the life of a capital city, still sustained in modern day Seoul.

  • Baegak Mounatain Trail <Baegangmaru Summit and its vicinity, Seoul; Scenic Site No. 67> • Trail : Changuimun Gate ~ Hyehwamun Gate
    • Distance : 4.7km
    • Duration : about 3 hours

    The Baegak Trail runs from Changuimun to Hyehwamun, and crosses Baegak (Bugaksan, 342m), which was the main mountain of Seoul four inner mountains in old Seoul according to geomantic theory and the highest one among them. After a unit of North Korean Special Forces infiltrated Seoul in 1968, public access to this area was limited for about forty years. It was finally reopened to the public in 2007.
    • Opening hours : Closed every Monday. If a national holiday falls on a Monday, it will be closed on Tuesday.
        Summer (Mar. ~ Oct.) 09:00~16:00, Winter (Nov. ~ Feb.) 10:00~15:00
    • Notice : Visitors must carry accepted form of identification (e.g. passport of Alien Registration Card issued from Republic of Korea).
    Transportation [Changuimun] ❸ Gyeongbokgung Station Exit 3Green bus No. 7212, 1020 or 7022 → Get off the bus off Jahamungogae Ridge → 2 minutes on foot [Sukjeongmun Information Center] ❹ Hansung Univ. Station Exit 6Green bus No. 1111 or 2112 → Get off at Myungsu School → 20 minutes on foot [Malbawi Information Center]
    1) ❸ Anguk Station Exit 2Jongno Town Bus No. 02 → Get off at the Sungkyunkwan Univ. Back Gate → 20 minutes on foot
    2) ❺ Gwanghwamun Station Exit 2Jongno Town Bus No. 11 → Get off at Samcheong Park → 20 minutes on foot
    [Bukjeong Village / Waryong Park] ❹ Hangsung Univ. Station Exit 6Seongbuk Town Bus No. 03 → Get off at Palgakjeong Pavilion → 5 minutes on foot [Hyehwamun] ❹ Hangsung Univ. Station Exit 5 → 5 minutes on foot
    Changuimun
    Changuimun Gate

    <Treasure No. 1881> Changuimun, situated on the northwest section of the wall, between mounts Inwangsan and Baegak, is the only auxiliary gate whose gate tower has survived to the present day. This gate tower was destroyed in 1592 during the war against Japan, and was reconstructed in 1741. Changuimun is now also known as Jahamun, since the scenery around the gate seems similar to that of scenic site Jahadong in Gaegyeong, the capital of Goryeo.
    Baegangmaru Summit
    Baegangmaru Summit

    Baegangmaru Summit is the highest point of the wall; a stone post inscribed with Baegak, Altitude of 342m stands there. During the first construction project, the whole length of the wall was divided into 97 sections, which were named in the order of the characters in the Thousand Character Classic. The first section was called Cheon (天; sky) and the last one Jo (弔; condolences). Baegakgmaru Submit is the first ‘Cheon (天; sky)’ section of the wall.
    January 21
    January 21, Pine tree

    There is a pine tree on the circuit path running down towards Cheongundae from Baegangmaru Summit (top of mountain). This approximately 200-year-old pine tree bears the traces of about fifteen bullets made during the gun battle between the South Korean military and police and the North Korean Special Forces unit, who infiltrated Korea on January 21, 1968. From this spot, a wide panorama between Bukhansan Mountain and Baegak spreads out beyond the wall.
    Circuit path of the Wall outside Ammun
    Patrol Routes

    Patrol Routes are where soldiers would patrol around the inside and outside of the wall during the Joseon Dynasty.
    Baegak Gokseong
    Baegak Gokseong Lookout

    Gokseongs are rounded, projecting sections of the wall which exist in Inwangsan and Baegaksan Mountains. Only Baegak Gokseong Lookout is open to the public, and it is one of the best places to admire the mountainous topography of Seoul.
    Sukjeongmun Gate
    Sukjeongmun Gate

    Sukjeongmun, situated on the north side of the wall, is the only remaining gate whose sides are still connected with the wall. Built in 1976, the gate tower was an entirely new addition to the wall.
    Malbawi Information Center and Scenic Views
    Malbawi Information Center and Scenic Views

    Malbawi is a large rock in Samcheong Park. There are two opinions about the origin of the rock’s name because of its different meanings in the same sound. Some said that the word "Mal" means "the last one" because the rock is positioned at the foot of Baegak, while others said that it means "horse" as people tethered their horses to the rock. There are two exellent view points around Malbawi; one directs to Seongbuk-gu, another directs to Jongno-gu. To get to the points, it needs to carefully check the signs since the main trail splits into several different places such as the Sukjeongmun Information Center, Malbawi Information Center, Samcheong Park, and Waryong Park.
    Bukchon Hanok Village
    Bukchon Hanok Village

    Bukchon, an old community located between Palace of Gyeongbokgung and Changdeokgung, was residential area to royal family members as well as the families of high government officials in Joseon. In this area, different types of several hundred Korean traditional houses (hanok) clustered together, including Yun Posun's House in Anguk-dong, which was built towards the end of the Joseon. Most of the houses were built in the 1910s and 1920s or, in the case of the urban-style hanok, from the 1930s.
    Bukjeong Village
    Bukjeong Village

    Picturesque Bukjeong Village spreads out beyond the Ammun (Secret Path), which is located on the wall towards Seongbuk-dong, near Waryong Park. The village consists of a cluster of some 500 tiled-roofed houses built in the 1960-70s, and is a well-known shooting location for TV dramas and films set in 1960-70s Seoul.
    Traces of Hanyangdoseong
    Traces of Hanyangdoseong

    Traces of the wall can be seen from the backstreet of Kyungshin High School to Hyehwamun. Some parts of the wall were used as the school fence (wall), or stone blocks were taken from the wall to build the foundations for houses. Traces of the wall can be seen again in front of the Dusan Villa Building, and they extend for about 150m towards the Official Residence of the Seoul Mayors.
    Hyehwamun Gate
    Hyehwamun Gate

    It is Dongbukmun (Northeast Gate), one of the four auxiliary gates on the wall. It was originally called Honghwamun at the time of its construction in 1396, but was renamed as Hyehwamun in 1511. The gate tower was demolished in 1928, followed by Hongye(halfarched door) in 1938. However, Hyehwamun was reconstructed in its current location, a little further north from its original site, in 1994.
    Winter season, Baegak Trail

    › Baegak Trail VOD - 01:39‘:08"
    Autumn season, Baegak Trail

    › Baegak Trail VOD - 01:43‘:53"
  • Naksan Mounatain Trail • Section : Hyehwamun Gate ~ Heunginjimun Gate
    • Distance : 2.1km
    • Duration : about 1 hour

    This hiking trail runs from Hyehwamun to Heunginjimun, passing via Naksan (124m), the lowest mountain of Seoul’s four inner mountains. Naksan is also known as Naktasan (“Camel Mountain”) or Tarak, due to its resemblance to a camel’s humps. This course is relatively easy due to its gentle slope. Alert visitors will notice the different shapes of the stones depending on the time of construction of the wall, as they walk along the path behind the Catholic Univ. of Korea.
    • Opening hours : 24 hours • Notice : Visitors are recommended to be silent for the residents of Bukjeong Village.
    Transportation [Entrance to Naksan] ❹ Hansung Univ. Station Exit 4 → 3 minutes on foot / ❹ Hyehwa Station Exit 1 → 5 minutes on foot [Top of Naksan Park] ❹ Hyehwa Station Exit 2 → 15 minutes on foot / Dongdaemun Station Exit 5 Jongno Town Bus No. 03 → Get off at Naksan Junction [Naksan Park / Ihwa Village] ❹ Hyehwa Station Exit 2 → 20 minutes on foot [Dongdaemun Seonggwak Park] Dongdaemun Station Exit 10 → 2 minutes on foot
    Hyehwamun Gate
    Hyehwamun Gate

    It is Dongbukmun (Northeast Gate), one of the four auxiliary gates on the wall. It was originally called Honghwamun at the time of its construction in 1396, but was renamed as Hyehwamun in 1511. The gate tower was demolished in 1928, followed by Hongye(halfarched door) in 1938. However, Hyehwamun was reconstructed in its current location, a little further north from its original site, in 1994.
    Jangsu Village
    Jangsu Village

    Situated next to the wall in the southeast of Naksan Park, Jangsu Village originally formed as a shantytown after the Korean War, and was named Jangsu(longevity) Village as the majority of the population was over 60 years old. When the village was designated as a redevelopment area due to its narrow alleys and old buildings, the inhabitants managed to halt the redevelopment project, and a village regeneration project was carried out instead. Jangsu Village is considered a successful case of a village regeneration project being conducted with residents’ participation.
    Naksan Park
    Naksan Park

    Naksan Park (Playground) is situated inside the wall, and can be reached from Jangsu Village via the Ammun (Secret Path). Naksan Park, which is also known as the Montmartre of Seoul, offers visitors great views of the city, including splendid views of the sunset and Seoul at night.
    Ihwa Village
    Ihwa Village

    Ihwa Village, just inside the wall on the Naksan Trail, was established many years ago. It used to be regarded as an area that had fallen behind in Seoul, but since 2006, with the government’s support, artists have colorful murals on the walls of the buildings and installed sculptures here and there, giving the community a bright and cheerful atmosphere. From the end of the stairway at the top of Naksan, walkers can see the wall, which encloses Ihwa Village.
    Sewing Village in Changsin-dong
    Sewing Village in Changsin-dong (Site of Quarry)

    During the Joseon, retired court ladies lived in Changsin-dong outside the Naksan section of the wall. After 1960, the area became a center of the apparel industry as subcontractors who made clothing gathered from Dongdaemun Market. There is the steep rocky cliff (40m in height, 201m in width) in the town that was used as a quarry from the Daehan Empire to the Japanese Colonial Period. Now, the area is packed with houses, even on the cliff.
    inscribed stone blocks
    Real-name construction system and inscribed stone blocks

    Some of the stone blocks used to build the wall have characters inscribed in them. Such stones are most commonly found around the section of the wall next to Dongdaemun Seonggwak Park, where they were collected and put together during the wall maintenance project. In the reigns of Kings Taejo and Sejong, the stones were inscribed with the names of the county and prefecture responsible for constructing a given wall section, as well as the name of that section, while in the mid-Joseon, they were marked with the names of the supervisors and lead technicians, and the construction date. The inscribed stone blocks in the photo on the right can be seen outside the wall, at the end section of the Naksan Trail.
    Heunginjimun Gate
    Heunginjimun Gate

    <Treasure No. 1> Heunginjimun is “East Gate” (Dongdaemun) of the wall. The current Heunginjimun was rebuilt in the sixth year of the reign of Emperor Gojong (1869). Regarding the topography of Seoul, the western part of the city is built on higher ground, while the eastern part is on low ground, so from a military perspective, Dongdaemun was the most vulnerable to attack. That is why the subsidiary wall were built outside Dongdaemun. In 1907, the walls on the right and left sides of the gate were demolished.
    Winter season, Naksan Trail

    › Naksan Trail VOD - 00:45‘:35"
    Autumn season, Naksan Trail

    › Naksan Trail VOD - 00:46‘:47"
  • Heunginjimun Gate Trail • Section : Heunginjimun Gate ~ Jangchung Gymnasium
    • Distance :1.8km
    •Duration : about 1 hour

    Discovering Traces of Hanyangdoseong: Heunginjimun Gate Section
    The wall section under review here starts at Heunginjimun , passes Gwanghuimun Gate and extends as far as Jangchung Gymnasium. The stretch of wall around Heunginjimun is on the lowest ground of the entire wall. Thus, Ogansumun and Igansumun water gates (The water gates consisted of five arched and two arched gates) were built here to drain water from the city into the streams outside the wall.
    Various military-related facilities were clustered here, too, including Hadogam (Sub Office of Hullyeondogam), Yeomchocheong (Dedartment of Gun Powder), Hullyeonwon (Military Training Ground). During the Daehan Empire, the streetcar line was built through here, followed by new streets and Gyeongseong Stadium in the Japanese colonial period. Then after liberation, the streets were widened and new homes were built in the area as well. All this construction activity caused most of the main wall structure to be removed during the past century, but now Igansumun water gate is being rebuilt on its original site, and the foundation remnants of Hadogam have been moved inside Dongdaemun History & Culture Park for public display. People who wish to visit this part of Hanyangdoseong may also stop in Dongdaemun Design Plaza or go shopping in the nearby Dongdaemun Market, Pyeonghwa Market and Bangsan Market.
    • Notice : The path to Jangchung Gymnasium via Gwanghuimun Gate passes through a residential area, so please show consideration for the local residents.
    Transportation [Heunginjimun] ❹ Dongdaemun Station Exit 6 or 7 → 1 minute on foot [Dongdaemun History & Culture Park]
    Dongdaemun Station Exit 7 → 10 minutes on foot / Dongdaemun History & Culture Park Station Exit 2 → 2 minutes on foot
    [Jangchung Gymnasium] ❸ Dongguk Univ. Station Exit 5 → 2 minutes on foot
    Heunginjimun Gate
    Heunginjimun Gate

    <Treasure No. 1> Heunginjimun is “East Gate” (Dongdaemun) of the wall. The current Heunginjimun was rebuilt in the sixth year of the reign of Emperor Gojong (1869). Regarding the topography of Seoul, the western part of the city is built on higher ground, while the eastern part is on low ground, so from a military perspective, Dongdaemun was the most vulnerable to attack. That is why the subsidiary wall were built outside Dongdaemun. In 1907, the walls on the right and left sides of the gate were demolished.
    Dongdaemun Market
    Dongdaemun Market

    Dongdaemun Market was originally opened in 1905 under the name of Gwangjang Market, as the first privately-run urban market in Korea. After the Korean War, the commercial zone of the market continued expanding eastward along Cheonggyecheon Stream. Nowadays, this large market zone has become a hub of the international apparel and fashion industry. Central Asia Town, located opposite the National Medical Center, is an immigrant community inhabited by people from Russia, Uzbekistan, and elsewhere. Many of the local store signs are written in Cyrillic letters.
    Site of Ogansumun and Igansumun Floodgates
    Site of Ogansumun Water Gate and Igansumun Water Gate

    <Historic Site No. 461 (Site of Ogansumun Water Gate)> Igansumun (two-arched water gate) and site of Ogansumun Water Gate (five-arched water gate) were located between Heunginjimun and Gwanghuimun. As the ground level of this area was the lowest in Seoul, runoff from the four inner mountains flowed down outside the wall through these water gates. Igansumun, which was unearthed around the spectators’ seating in Dongdaemun Stadium, has been almost entirely preserved in its original form, but there are no remaining traces of Ogansumun.
    Dongdaemun History Culture Park
    Dongdaemun History & Culture Park

    The Dongdaemun History & Culture Park was built on a site previously occupied by a military camp and a gunpowder factory around the end of Joseon. In 1925, the Japanese built the modern Gyeongseong Stadium, which, after Korea’s liberation from Japan, was renamed Seoul Stadium. Then, after the 1988 Seoul Olympics (the 24th Olympic Games), it was modernized and renamed Dongdaemun Stadium. During the dismantling of the stadium in 2007, some parts of a section of the wall, a two-arched water gate (to drain runoff from Namsan Mountain to outside the wall), battlements (projected part of the wall similar to fortress), and remains of old buildings were discovered at this site. The artifacts excavated from this site are on display at the Dongdaemun History Museum 1398 inside the Dongdaemun History & Culture Park.
    Gwanghuimun Gate
    Gwanghuimun Gate

    Gwanghuimun is located southeast of Hanyangdoseong. Part of the gate was destroyed during the Japanese Colonial Period, and in the 1960’s, during a street expansion project, the remaining part was dismantled. Then, in 1975, the gate was rebuilt at the current location, some 15m south of its original position.
    Jangchung-dong Residential Area
    Jangchung-dong Residential Area

    The wall disappears altogether in the residential area around Janchung-dong next to Gwanghuimun. In 1930, when the Oriental Development Company (established by Imperial Japan) developed this area for housing, some parts of this section of the wall were damaged. Years later, during the 1960s and ’70s, the construction of houses damaged the wall further.
    Winter season, Heunginjimun Trail

    › Heunginjimun Trail VOD - 00:08‘:14"
    Autumn season, Heunginjimun Trail

    › Heunginjimun Trail VOD - 00:04‘:31"
  • Namsan(Mongmyeoksan) Mountain Trail • Section : Jangchung Gymnasium ~ Baekbeom Square
    • Distance : 4.2km
    • Duration :about 3 hours

    This walking trail runs from the backstreets of Janchung Gymnasium to Namsan Park. In early Joseon, a national shrine and beacon platform were built near and at the top of Namsan (Mongmyeoksan, 270m). As Namsan was the center of the administrative district in Seoul, there is a stone marker inscribed with “the Central Point of Seoul” on the summit. In the 1920’s, most the wall in the area were demolished to build the Joseon Shinto Shrine by the Japanese; but due to the preservation and restoration projects conducted since the 1970s and the Namsan recovering project carried out in the mid-1990s, most of the wall sections around Namsan have been restored to their original appearance.
    • Opening hours : Namsan – 24 hours • Tip: Visitors are advised to check the event schedule of Namsangol Hanok Village, many interesting events are held there.
    Transportation [Namsangol Hanok Village] ❹ Chungmuro Station Exit 4 → 1 minute on foot [Jangchungdan Park] ❸ Dongguk Univ. Station Exit 6 → 1 minute on foot [Jangchung Gymnasium] ❸ Dongguk Univ. Station Exit 5 → 2 minutes on foot [Namsan Park Bus Stop] Namsan Shuttle Bus No. 02, 03 or 05 → Get off at Namsan Park [Namsan Public Library] Namsan Shuttle Bus No. 02, 03 or 05 → Get off at Namsan Public Library [Baekbeom Square] ❹ Hoehyeon Station Exit 4 → 5 minutes on foot / ❹ Myeongdong Station Exit 3 → 10 minutes on foot
    National Theater of Korea
    National Theater of Korea

    The National Theater of Korea, a venue for live performances and the arts, was built in Jangchung-dong, Seoul in 1973. It is also the place where Yuk Young-soo (the first lady of the former Korean president Park Chung-hee, was assassinated on South Korean Independence Day in 1974. The theater comprises of the Main Hall Hae, Dal (small hall), Studio Byeol, and Haneul Youth Theater (amphitheater) facilities.
    Central Point of Seoul
    Central Point of Seoul

    Where is the central point of Seoul? The result of a GPS measurement confirmed that the geographical central point of Seoul is on the top of Namsan, where a stone marker bearing the inscription “Central Point of Seoul” was erected.
    N Seoul Tower
    N Seoul Tower

    The N Seoul Tower is an observation tower located on the summit of Namsan. Rising 480m above sea level, the tower is inarguably Seoul’s most popular attraction, offering a 360° view of the city. The tower was originally built in 1969 for telecommunications and broadcasting, including television and radio, and has been open to the public since 1980. After extensive renovations in 2005, the Tower was reopened as a complex cultural space. Various stories about Hanyangdoseong are displayed on the second floor of the Tower Observatory.
    Opening Hours : N Seoul Tower Observatory - Monday~Friday / Sunday 10:00~23:00 | Saturday 10:00~24:00
    ※The second floor (T2) of the N Seoul Tower Observatory displays various stories about the Hanyangdoseong.
    * Opening Hours of Namsan Cable Car : 10a.m.~11p.m. (The cable car service may be opened one hour longer than the normal opening hours on Fridays, Saturdays, and days before National Holidays depending on the circumstances.)
    Namsan Palgakjeong
    Namsan Palgakjeong Pavillion and Site of Guksadang Shrine

    Namsan Palgakjeong was built at Site of Guksadang of Joseon. In 1925, when the Japanese built the Shinto Shrine, Guksadang was moved to the foot of Inwangsan Mountain. During the First Republic of South Korea, the pavilion, which was modeled on Palgakjeong in Tapgol Park at this site, was named “Unamjeong” after the pen-name of the then President Syngman Rhee, but it was renamed Palgakjeong after the April 19 Revolution.
    Site of Mongmyeoksan Beacon Mound
    Site of Mongmyeoksan Beacon Mound

    <Monument No. 13> Site of Mongmyeoksan Beacon Mound was the final destination for beacon signals sent from the border areas during Joseon. In the daytime, smoke was used to transmit messages, while at night a signal fire was lit. This beacon platform was built in 1423 and survived intact for over 450 years until 1895. The current mound was restored in 1993.
    Jamdubong Photo Island
    Jamdubong Photo Island

    The western summit of Namsan called Jamdubong (“Silkworm Head Peak”) because of its shape. The observatory platform on Jamdubong commands a panoramic view of the city, which looks like a dense forest of buildings surrounded by the four inner mountains.
    Hoehyeon, Namsan
    Remains of the wall at the foot of Hoehyeon, Namsan

    The area around the Patriot Ahn Jung-geun Memorial Hall on Namsan was damaged during the construction of the Shinto in 1925. In 2013, when the Seoul Metropolitan Government implemented a project for the preservation and maintenance of Hanyangdoseong, parts of the base of the wall were unearthed in good condition in this area.
    Namsangol Hanok Village
    Namsangol Hanok Village

    Namsangol Hanok Village was opened as a park in 1998 after many of the hanok (traditional Korean houses) scattered around Seoul were dismantled and rebuilt in Namsangol. The park was established in 1989 by Seoul City Government after buying the site on which the headquarters of the military police was located in the Japanese Colonial Period, and where the Capital Defense Command building was situated after Korea’s liberation from Japan. The park, which was developed in a nature-friendly style, features a cluster of hanok built towards the end of Joseon, at the time of the enlightenment of Korea. In 1994, a time capsule was buried just south of the hanok to celebrate Seoul’s 600th anniversary as the capital of Korea; it will not be opened until 2394, the 1000th anniversary of Seoul’s designation as the capital.
    Winter season, Namsan (Mongmyeoksan) Trail

    › Namsan (Mongmyeoksan) Trail VOD - 0:24‘:43"
    Autumn season, Namsan (Mongmyeoksan) Trail

    › Namsan (Mongmyeoksan) Trail VOD - 00:19‘:13"
  • Sungnyemun Gate Trail • Section : Baekbeom Square ~ Site of Donuimun Gate
    • Distance : 1.8km
    • Duration : About 1 hour

    Wall Destruction with Modernization: Sungnyemun Gate Section
    Sungnyemun Section starts at Baekbeom Square, passes Sungnyemun and continues as far as the Site of Donuimun. Sungnyemun was the main entrance into the capital and, being in the south wall, was the closest to the Hangang River, and thus most of the people and goods going to the capital passed through this gate. Commercial activities flourished in late Joseon, and Chilpae Market was established just outside this gate, while just inside the gate the Morning Market was established in front of the Tribute Bureau warehouse. Chilpae Market became one of the three major markets in the capital, along with those at Jongnu and Ihyeon. The Morning Market evolved into today’s Namdaemun Market. A commercial treaty was concluded with Japan in 1876, followed by similar treaties with various Western powers, and Seoul became open to outsiders. The legations and housing for diplomatic officials of Western countries were concentrated in Jeong-dong area, near the South Gate, as were the churches and schools established by Western missionaries.

    The first streetcar lines went into service in the capital in 1899, rendering the original function of Sungnyemun obsolete, and the wall sections on each side of Sungnyemun were removed in 1907 to improve the traffic flow. Thereafter, more of the wall was demolished when new buildings were constructed in the area the gate, making it difficult to find any traces of the old wall. Only two sites remain in this section were such remnants can be recovered. The lower part of the original wall remains along the alley that runs from the Korea Chamber Of Commerce & Industry to the Olive Tower, and the base of a fifty-meter wall section at Changdeok Girls’ Middle School comes from the old wall as well.
    • Remember: Excursions along Sungnyemun section require some information in advance, given the difficulty in following the course of original Hanyangdoseong.
    Transportation [Jeongdong-gil] ❷ City Hall Station Exit 10→ 5 minute on foot [Deoksugung] City Hall Station Exit 2→ 1 minute on foot [Sungnyemun] Gyeongui Line · Airport Line · Seoul Station Exit 4→ 5 minutes on foot [Namdaemun Market] ❹ Hoehyeon Station Exit 5→ 1 minute on foot
    Sungnyemun Gate
    Sungnyemun Gate

    <National Treasure No. 1> Sungnyemun, also known as Namdaemun (South Gate), is the main gate of Hanyangdoseong. Construction of the gate started in 1395 and ended in 1398, although it was rebuilt on two occasions in 1448 and 1479. Although the right and left sides of the wall were demolished in 1907, the gate itself remained as a cultural heritage. Sadly, in February 2008, the wooden structure on the second floor of the gate tower was burned down by fire, and was not fully restored until May 2013. In addition, an 83m-long section of wall connecting to both sides of Sungnyemun was restored at this time.

    Opening Hours : Sungnyemun - Open all year round (but closed every Monday), Opening hours : 09:00~18:00
       Summer (June ~ Aug.) 09:00~18:30 / Winter (Nov. ~ Feb.) 09:00~17:30
    Namdaemun Market and Chilpae Market
    Namdaemun Market and Chilpae Market

    Namdaemun Market was opened in January 1897 as the first permanent urban market in Korea. The Sangpyeongchang (responsible for regulating prices) was originally located here during the early Joseon, and with the enforcement of the Law of Uniform Land Tax in the 17th century, the Tribute Bureau was established here. Then, in 1894, when the decision was made to collect tax payments in money, and there was no longer any need to store rice tributes, this area of the Seonhyecheong Warehouse was given over to merchants for use as a market place.
    Site of Souimun Gate
    Site of Souimun Gate

    Souimun is located southwest of Hanyangdoseong. It was originally built in 1396 as Sodeokmun, but was renamed Souimun in 1744. Funeral biers passed beyond the wall via this gate and Gwanghuimun. However, the gate was demolished in 1914, and only the stone marker with the name “Souimun” remains.
    Former Russian Legation
    Former Russian Legation

    <Historic Site No. 253> Former Russian Legation is a Renaissance-style building constructed in the 27th year of the reign of Emperor Gojong (1890). Gojong took refuge there for one year from February 1896 following the assassination of Queen Myeongseong by Japanese soldiers (Incident of the Year Eulmi, 1895). During the Korean War, all of the building was destroyed, except for the tower. It was rebuilt in 1973, and two more restoration projects were conducted in 2007 and 2010.
    Chungdong First Methodist Church
    Chungdong First Methodist Church

    <Historic Site No. 256> Chungdong Church was established by an American missionary named Henry Appenzeller. Built between 1895 and 1897, this gothic-style red-brick structure was Korea’s first Methodist church, and served as a channel for the introduction of American culture and civilization to Korea during the period of enlightenment.
    Simpson and Ewha Girls High School
    Simpson Memorial Hall at Ewha Girls' High School

    <Registered Cultural Heritage No. 3> The Simpson Memorial Hall, which was built in 1915, is currently used as the Ewha Museum. The Ewha Hakdang (original name of Ewha Girls' High School) was founded by American missionary Marry Scranton as Korea’s first educational establishment for girls or women. The school grounds house numerous monuments including the site of the well where Yu Gwansun (patriot killed in the March First Independence Movement in 1919) used to wash her clothes, a memorial stone for the “cradle of new education for Korean women,” the Yu Gwansun Statue, and a stone sign marking the site of the Sontak Hotel.
    Site of Donuimun Gate
    Site of Donuimun Gate

    Donuimun, which is also called Seodaemun (West Gate), used to be located at this site. It was originally built during the reign of King Taejo of Joseon (1396), but it was closed in the 13th year of the reign of King Taejong (1413), and Seojeonmun was built for public access to the west of the wall. However, the exact original location of Seojeonmun is unknown. In the 4th year of the reign of King Sejong(1422), during construction work to reduce the size of certain sections of the wall, Seojeonmun was closed and Donuimun was newly built at the current location. Since then, Donuimun has also been called Saemun or Sinmun (New Gate), while the nearby street was named Sinmunno after the gate. However, in 1915, during the Japanese occupation, when the streetcar service passed via the gate, the gate was dismantled and its building materials sold off. Currently, a public art work titled “Invisible Gate” stands on the former Site of Donuimun.
    Winter season, Sungnyemun Trail

    › Sungnyemun VOD - 01:30‘:27"
    Autumn season, Sungnyemun Trail

    › Sungnyemun Trail VOD - 01:19‘:18"
  • Inwangsan Mountain Trail • Section : Site of Donuimun Gate ~ Changuimun Gate
    • Distance : 4km
    • Duration : about 2 hours 30 minutes

    This walking course runs from Site of Donuimun to the Yun Dong-ju Hill, via Inwangsan (339m), which is situated to the right of Seoul’s four inner mountains. Inwangsan is also known as a rocky mountain characterized by unusual rock formations including Chimabawi (Rock of women’s skirt), Seonbawi (Rock of meditating monk), and Gichabawi (Rock of train). The name “Inwang” is a Buddhist term, and it is said that a Korean Buddhist monk named Muhak (1327~1405) once declared that if Inwangsan ever became one of the country’s principal mountains, Buddhism would flourish here. Access to the mountain was prohibited after a unit of the North Korean Special Forces infiltrated Seoul on 21 January 1968, and it was not reopened to the public until 1993.
    • Opening Hours : 24 hours (Closed every Monday; and on Tuesdays when a national holiday falls on the preceding Monday.)
    • Yun Dong-ju Literary Museum – Summer (March ~ Oct.) 10:00~18:00 / Winter (Nov. ~ Feb.) 10:00~17:00
       (Closed every Monday, and during the Chuseok (Harvest Moon) and Seollal (Lunar New Year) holidays
    • Notice: As Inwangsan has many rocky sections, visitors take extra care, especially in winter. • Guide Tip: The Sajik Daeje (National Rite to Gods of the Earth and Grains; Important Intangible Cultural Heritage No. 111)
       is held at Sajikdan Altar by the Corporate Mutual Association of the Jeonju Lee Clan on the third Sunday of every September.
    Transportation [Site of Donuimun]
    ❺ Seodaemun Station Exit 4 → 2 minutes on foot / Jongno Town Bus No.05 → Get off at the Kangbuk Samsung Medical Center → 1 minute on foot
    [Gyeonghuigung] ❺ Gwanghwamun Station Exit 1 → 5 minutes on foot [Sajikdan] ❸ Gyeongbokgung Station Exit 1 → 5 minutes on foot [Guksadang of Inwangsan] ❸ Dongnimmun Station Exit 2 → 20 minutes on foot [Inwangsan (toward Beombawi Rock)] ❸ Muakjae Station Exit 2 → 30 minutes on foot [Inwangsan (toward the Top)] ❸ Gyeongbokgung Station Exit 3Jongno Town Bus No. 09 → Get off at Okin Apartment → 30 minutes on foot [Inwangsan (toward Gichabawi Rock)] ❸ Hongje Station Exit 2Jongno Town Bus No. 07 → Get off at Ant Village → 15 minutes on foot [Yun Dong-ju’s Hill] ❸ Gyeongbokgung Palace Station Exit 3Green Bus No. 7212 or 1020 or 7022 → Get off at Jahamungogae → 2 minutes on foot
    Site of Donuimun Gate
    Site of Donuimun Gate

    Donuimun, which is also called Seodaemun (West Gate), used to be located at this site. It was originally built during the reign of King Taejo of Joseon (1396), but it was closed in the 13th year of the reign of King Taejong (1413), and Seojeonmun was built for public access to the west of the wall. However, the exact original location of Seojeonmun is unknown. In the 4th year of the reign of King Sejong (1422), during construction work to reduce the size of certain sections of the wall, Seojeonmun was closed and Donuimun was newly built at the current location. Since then, Donuimun has also been called Saemun or Sinmun (New Gate), while the nearby street was named Sinmunno after the gate. However, in 1915, during the Japanese occupation, when the streetcar service passed via the gate, the gate was dismantled and its building materials sold off. Currently, a public art work titled “Invisible Gate” stands on the former Site of Donuimun.
    Gyeonggyojang
    Gyeonggyojang House

    <Historic Site No. 465> Gyeonggyojang served as the office of the Korean provisional government from 1945 to 1946, and was also the home of Kim Gu, the head of the provisional government from 1945 to 1949, the year he was assassinated there. It later served as the residence of the ambassador of the Republic of China, the residence of the Vietnamese ambassador, and then as a hospital, among other functions. In March 2013, Gyeonggyojang was restored as the home of Kim Gu and opened to the public.
    Traces of Hanyangdoseong
    Traces of Hanyangdoseong

    During the construction of Woram Neighborhood Park, some parts of the wall were unearthed from below the embankment of the wall of Seoul Welfare Foundation building (former offices of the Korea Meteorological Services). Further traces of the wall can be seen behind the parking lot of the town houses around Hong Nan-pa's House in Hongpa-dong.
    Hong Nanpa House
    Hong Nanpa's House in Hongpa-dong

    <Registered Cultural Heritage No. 90> This house was inhabited by Nan Pa Hong Yeong-hu (1898~1941), the composer of such well-known songs as Bongseonhwa (a Balsam), and Hometown’s Spring. He composed most of his best-known pieces here. This Western-style building from the 1930s has been preserved well.
    Dilkusha
    Dilkusha (Tailor’s House)

    Dilkusha (“Palace of Hope” in Hindi) is a western-style building built and inhabited from 1923-42 by Albert Taylor, a gold mine engineer and United Press International correspondent in Seoul. Located next to the house is a 450-year-old gingko tree, which is said to have been brought from the home of General Gwon Yul (1537-1599), the Joseon general who led the Korean forces to victory against Japan at the battle of Haengju Fortress (1592). The name of Haengchon-dong originated from this story.
    Guksadang
    Guksadang Shrine of Inwangsan and Seonbawi Rock

    <Important Folklore Cultural Heritage No. 28> Guksadang was initially built at the summit of Namsan Mountain during the reign of King Taejo of Joseon, but was dismantled and restored at its present location on the western ridge of Inwangsan at the order of the Japanese Imperial government, which built the Shinto Shrine on the site. Seonbawi, above Guksadang, is said to resemble a monk absorbed in Zen meditation. There is a saying that Jeong DoJeon, an influential aristocrat and politician in early Joseon who was opposed to Buddhism, modified the boundary of Hanyangdoseong in order to place this rock beyond the wall.
    Gyeongbokgung Palace
    Hanok village (Sangchon or Udae), west of Gyeongbokgung Palace

    Many urban-style hanok built during the Japanese Colonial Period have been preserved in this community between Inwangsan and Gyeongbokgung. The village, known as Sangchon or Udae in late Joseon, was home to many lowlevel officials because it was close to the palace and government offices. Towards the end of Joseon, the village found itself at the center of the Yeohang (i.e. classes below the elite) literature, as non-yangban (non-ruling caste) intellectuals organized their poetry club here. Since the modern period, prominent figures like poets Yi Sang and Yun Dong-ju, and the artists No Cheon-myeong, Yi Jung-seop, Cheon Gyeong-ja, and Lee Sang-beom, have lived and worked here.
    the wall section
    The Wall Section Showing Different Building Techniques

    On the Inwangsan trail is a place where it is possible to see the different techniques used in different periods to build the wall. The long section at the crossroads by Tangchundaeseong, passing via Chimabawi Rock from the top of Inwangsan, was built with various stone block types at different times, along with the street next to outside the wall.
    Yun Dong ju
    Yun Dong-ju Hill and Literary Museum

    This area was established as a park around Changuimun, near the western slopes of Inwangsan, to commemorate the literary spirit of Yun Dong-ju, a famous poet known for his lyric poetry and resistance poetry against Japan, as he lived near this hill during his time at Yeonhui Vocational School. A large stone inscribed with his most famous poem, Seosi, is located at the top of the hill, near the Yun Dong-ju Literary Museum.
    Changuimun Gate
    Changuimun Gate

    Changuimun, situated on the northwest section of the wall, between mounts Inwangsan and Baegak, is the only auxiliary gate whose gate tower has survived to the present day. This gate tower was destroyed in 1592 during the war against Japan, and was reconstructed in 1741. Changuimun is now also known as Jahamun, since the scenery around the gate seems similar to that of scenic site Jahadong in Gaegyeong, the capital of Goryeo.
    Winter season, Inwangsan Trail

    › Inwangsan Trail VOD - 01:19‘:17"
    Autumn season, Inwangsan Trail

    › Inwangsan Trail VOD - 01:19‘:17"
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